Types of system software: The Translator, Utility Programs And The Database Management Systems (DBMS)

Have you been looking for where to get a detailed analysis of the : The Translator, Utility Programs And The Database Management Systems (DBMS). You are in the right place only if you continue reading this.
To start off with:

A translator is a program which converts statements (program or instructions) written in one language to statements in another language especially to machine language. There are three types of translators:1. Assemblers

2. Compilers.

3. Interpreters.

THE ASSEMBLER: This is a program, which translate assembly language into machine code. One machine instruction is generated for each source instruction. The resulting program can only be executed when the assembly process is completed. The assembler reserves space for the instructions and data, replaces mnemonic operating codes by machine codes and symbolic addresses by numeric addresses while it determines the machine representation of constants.

FUNCTIONS OF THE ASSEMBLER .
(a). It translate mnemonic operation codes, and symbolic addresses into machine addresses.
(b). Includes the necessary linkages for closed subroutines and insert appropriate machine code for macros.
(c). Allocates area of storage.
(d). Detects and indicates invalid source language instructions.
(e). Produces the object program on disk as required.
(f). Produces a printed listing of the source and object program with comments.

THE COMPILER : Compiler translates a high level language into machine language. The compiler translate the whole source program into machine code or object program prior to the object being loaded into main memory and execution. The resulting program can only be executed when compilation is completed. The storage of the object program into a diskette facilities future usage of the high level language source program any other time it is needed.

HOW THE COMPILER DOES ASSEMBLER WORK .
(a). Translates the source program statements into machine code.
(b). Includes linkage for closed subroutines.
(c). Allocates areas of main storage.
(d). Generates the object program on cards, tapes or disc as required.
(e). Produces a printed copy of the source and object program when required.
(f). Tabulates list of errors found during program compilation e.g. the use of ‘word’ or statement not included in the language vocabulary, the rule of syntax or lexis.

THE INTERPRETER: Interpreter is more easily understood by comparing them with compiler. Both compilers and interpreters are commonly used for the translation of high-level language program but they perform the translation in two completely different ways. In the compiler, the whole of the high level language source program is converted into machine code object program prior to the object program being loaded into main memory for execution. This in contrast to the interpreter which deals with the source program one instruction at a time, completely translating and executing each instruction before it goes onto the next. Interpreter seldom produce object codes but call upon in-built routines instead. However, some intermediate codes are usually produced temporarily.

The interpreter does not produce object program, it read source program, translates it and goes ahead to execute it. The object program provided by a compiler fastens execution than any interpreter can do in the running of a program, the use of object program may however pose a problem where there is an error as it is very time consuming to discover the source of error, a compiler is capable of producing a machine code generated by it at any time, whereas an interpreter can only execute the source program.

If a computer is used, the same program needs only to be translated once. Thereafter, the object program can be loaded directly into main storage and executed. However, when an interpreter is used, the source program will be translated every time the program is executed. Execution carried out in this way may be ten times slower than the execution of the equivalent object programs. Interpreters are widely used, particularly for the programming language BASIC on small computers, because they are easier to use for beginners than compilers.

USES OF INTERPRETERS.

  1. Handling user commands in an interactive system.
  2. They debug programs as they run (i.e. removing faults) i.e. for each line of coding before implemented.
  3. Handling software produced for or by different computer. In this case, the interpreter may be essential if:

(a). Two dissimilar machines are to be connected together for operation, or
(b). If software produced on an old model and not yet converted had to be run on a new one. This procedure is referred to as SIMULATION since interpreter allow the new computer to simulate the behavior of the old
4. Interpreter can also be used to simulate a new machine not yet provided but for which software is already written.

UTILITY PROGRAMS : Utility programs, also called support, service or diagnostic software are system programs which provides a useful service to the user of the computer by providing facilities for performing common tasks of a routine nature. They contain programs which remove obstacles on the user’s path. The input, output routines are example of utilities; they are stored in ROM (Read Only Memory) and can be readily called for any time they are needed. Common function such as TAN, EXP, COT, INT, ABS are further examples of utilities contained in the ROM, while language and control utilities are used to process programs, routine and function utilities are used within programs, some utilities are useful in renaming, deleting, merging and sorting files.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (DBMS).

A database system takes care of the problem identified with integrated file system because it is a single organized collection of structured data with a minimum of duplication of data items so as to provide a consistent and controlled pool of data. A database management system is a software system which constructs, maintains and processes a Database. Communication with the database is via the Data Description Language (DLL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML). The data dictionary is the data encyclopedia or directory that holds “data about data” in the database. The importance of a data base is such that a special manager called Database Administrator (DBA) is often appointed with other staff to verse the working and control of the database and the DBMS.

Comments

  1. Its truely: Tips On Point.

  2. Every system or dialects is collected an implemented is by the compiler and translator or interpreter.and according to me now assembler is already designed into the compiler.like sensible every system need information source to shop the information.

  3. Compiler and assembler both works same as a compiler translates source code into machine language. Ultimately these translators work as a translator.

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